Global prevalence and clinical outcomes of tubercular uveitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis

      Abstract

      Tubercular uveitis (TBU) is an inflammation/infection of the eye secondary to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. The difficulty in making the diagnosis has resulted in variable prevalence and clinical response rates. We aimed to determine the global prevalence of TBU in uveitis patients stratified by TB high-burden countries (HBCs) and non-HBCs and by geographic regions and the clinical response of TBU to antitubercular treatment
      We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of TBU studies published in PubMed, Scopus and EMBASE, up to June 30, 2020. A random effects model was used for all meta-analyses. Of 5,018 articles identified, 70 prevalence studies (65,607 uveitis and 3,166 TBU cases) and 18 clinical outcome studies (1,570 TBU cases; 1,304 responded to anti-tubercular therapy [ATT]) were analyzed. The overall weighted prevalence of TBU was 4.0% (95% CI, 3–5); in TB HBCs it was 7.0% (95% CI, 5–11), non-HBCs 3.0% (95% CI, 2–4), and sub-Saharan Africa 11.0% (95% CI, 8–15). The overall weighted clinical response was 82.0% (95% CI, 75–89). Despite the difficulty in diagnosing TBU, the prevalence is expectantly higher in HBCs, and sub-Saharan Africa and the clinical outcome is poor. Standardization of diagnostic criteria and ATT is warranted in future cohort studies.

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